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The Design of Wireless Sensor Network Positioning System Based on TinyOS

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Tutor: TaoZhengSu
School: Shanghai Jiaotong University
Course: Measuring Technology and Instruments
Keywords: wireless sensor network,TinyOS,positioning,RSSI,CC2430
CLC: TP212.9
Type: Master's thesis
Year:  2013
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Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a new technology which appearalong with the development of embedded system, wirelesscommunication, network technology and MEMS. Wireless sensornetwork is a new type of distributed self-organizing data collectionnetwork. It integrates data collection, wireless communication andinformation disposal. Localization technology in wireless sensornetworks is one of key technologies. It is used to determine locations ofunknown nodes according to several beacon nodes whose location isknown.At present, most research on node positioning is limited in theory.From the practicality, a set of small positioning system of WSN is built inthe paper. By comparing the positioning technologies and combining withthe practical application environment, the centroid algorithm based onReceived Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is chosen for the system. Atype of sensor nodes based on CC2430is designed for the positioningsystem. The CC2430chip includes8051cores and RF module CC2420,which perfectly support IEEE802.15.4standard, ZigBee protocol andTinyOS operating system. These nodes can easily realize environmentalparameters acquisition and wireless transmission by mounting fewperipheral circuits. Peripheral circuits, including crystal oscillation, reset,power supply, RS232communication, Debug interface, key control andRF transceiver are designed in detail in the paper.On the analysis and comparison of wireless sensor network operatingsystem, TinyOS was chosen as the embedded operating system runningon CC2430. After full analysis of TinyOS system architecture, schedulingmechanism, core module and compilation process, different positioning programs are designed based on TinyOS, according to three type of nodeswhich play different roles in the positioning system. The parameters oflog-normal path attenuation model are confirmed by experiments in thelaboratory environment, and the feasibility of centroid algorithm based onRSSI is validated in Matlab.A real-time positioning monitoring software is designed based on Qt,aimed at tracking and recording for unknown nodes. The softwarereceives serial port data which is uploaded from the sink, extracts keywords such as node ID and RSSI value, computes the coordinate of theunknown node by three edge measuring method, and draws nodesdistribution diagram in the software interface. The experimental resultsindicate that the positioning system can realize basic positioning, get theaverage positioning accuracy of less than10%, able to meet most ofapplications. The positioning system designed in the paper providessecurity for further positioning and tracking.
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